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  Holarrhena pubescens
  Citation:  Holarrhena pubescens (Buch.-Ham.) Wall. ex G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 78. 1837-1838; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 227. 1985; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 277. 1988; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 416. 1990; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 280. 1990; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 291. 1994; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 9,15; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 280. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 202. 1997; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 413. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 243. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 188. 2002; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 438. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 309. 2005; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 424. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 519. 2009. Echites pubescens Buch.-Ham., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 13: 521. 1821. Echites antidysenterica Roth in Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 4: 394. 1819, non (L.) Roxb. ex Flem. 1810. Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roth) A. DC. in DC., Prodr. 8: 413. 1844; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 644. 1882; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 811(570). 1923; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 165. 1982; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 253. 1984; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 241. 1989; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 220. 1995. Holarrhena malaccensis Wight, Ic. t. 1298. 1848.
  Malayalam Name(s): Kadalapala, Kadavelapparintholi, Kudagapala
  Tamil name(s): Kutaj
  English name(s): Conessi bark, Ester tree, Ivory tree, Tellicherry tree, Indrajao
  Description: Small deciduous trees; to 8 m high; bark rough, pale brown, to 8 mm, exfoliates in small flakes; latex milky white. Leaves simple, opposite, 7-18 x 3-12 cm, broadly ovate, ovate-oblong or ovate-lanceolate, apex acute or acuminate, base obtuse, margin entire, glabrous or puberulent beneath, membranous; petiole 4-6 mm, pubescent, stout; lateral nerves 10-14 pairs, prominent, arched, puberulous; intercostae reticulate. Flowers bisexual, creamy-white, slightly fragrant, in terminal and axillary corymbose cymes, appear along with new leaves. Calyx lobes 5, 2.5 mm long, oblong-lanceolate, ciliate, glandular within at base. Corolla salvar shaped, lobes 5, oblong, obtuse, as long as the tube, tube 1.3 cm long, puberulous, mouth with a ring of hairs. Stamens 5, included, attached towards the base of the corolla tube, anthers sagitate; disc absent. Carpels 2, apocarpous; ovules many in each carpel, style 2 mm long; stigma fusiform, bifid. Fruit of 2 terete elongated follicular mericarps connected at the tip and then free, 25 x 1 cm; seeds 8 mm, oblong, with tuft of silky brown hairs at the apex.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: April-October
  District(s): All Districts
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Moist deciduous and dry deciduous forests, also in the plains
  Distribution: Indo-Malesia
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): White
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 500-700
  Localities: Peechi, Kattalappara, Koruthode, Padippara, Puthukulam, Padam, Parappa, Kannoth, Begur, Taliparamba, Nemmara, Mangalam Dam area, Peradala, Chettikulangara, Canoli, Chathamangalam area, Kulathupuzha, Thenmalai, Meenmutty, Attayar
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