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  Gmelina arborea
  Citation:  Gmelina arborea Roxb., Pl. Corom. t. 246. 1815; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 581. 1885; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1097(768). 1924; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 313. 1984; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 295. 1985; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 355. 1988; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 317. 1989; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 614. 1990; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 365. 1990; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 359. 1994; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 352. 1996; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 535. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 310. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Chinnar WLS 240. 1999; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 241. 2002; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 523. 2002; Rajendran & Daniel, Indian Verbenaceae 155. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 392. 2005; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 563. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 639. 2009.
  Malayalam Name(s): Kumalu, Kumbil, Kumizhanpazham, Kumizhu, Sevana
  Tamil name(s): Gambhari
  English name(s): Candahar tree, Coomb teak, Cashmeri teak, Gamari, Kambari, White teak
  Description: Deciduous trees, to 20 m high, bark 8-10 mm thick, white or whitish-grey, smooth, lenticellate, scurfy, exfoliating in thin flakes; branchlets stout, tomentose. Leaves simple, opposite, 7.5-25 x 6-20 cm, broadly ovate or ovate, base cordate truncate or rounded, apex acute or acuminate, margin entire, glabrous above and tomentose beneath, glaucous beneath, coriaceous; petiole 5-12.5 cm long, slender, tomentose; nerves 3-5 from base, lateral nerves 3-6, pinnate, prominent, prominent, puberulent beneath; intercostae scalariform, prominent; 2 glands on either side of the midrib at the base. Flowers bisexual, 3-3.7 cm long, yellow with orange-pink shade, in terminal panicles. Calyx 6 mm long, campanulate, 5 toothed, tomentose. Corolla bilabiate, tube ventricose, lobes 5, subequal, obovate, obtuse, densely hairy. Stamens 4, didynamous; anthers 2 mm, divaricate. Ovary 4 mm, superior, syncarpous, glabrous, ovules 4; style 2 cm, slender, glabrous, unequally bifid. Fruit a drupe 2.5-3.5 x 1-1.5 cm, ovoid, pulpy, pyrene bonny, ovoid with a deep depression, yellow; seeds 2-4, elliptic.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: January-June
  District(s): All Districts
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Moist and dry deciduous forests, also in the plains
  Distribution: Indo-Malesia
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Yellow, Brown
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 300-800
  Localities: Peechi, Sholayar, Churullipetty, Thannikkudy, Karimala, Plapally, Begur, on way to Kannoth, Tolpetty, Taliparamba, Karivara slopes, Malampuzha, Mangalam Dam area, Siruvani slopes, Chengannur, Vandanam, Thalichola, Attayar, Bonaccord
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