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  Givotia moluccana
  Citation:  Givotia moluccana (L.) Sreem., Taxon 24: 696. 1975; Matthew, Kew Bull. 46: 545. 1991; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 291. 2002. Croton moluccanus L., Sp. Pl. 1005. 1753. Givotia rottleriformis Griff. ex Wight, Ic. 5: 24. 1852; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 395. 1887; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1342(938). 1925; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 430. 1990; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 373. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Chinnar WLS 284. 1999; N.P.Balakr. & Chakrab., Fam. Euphorbiaceae India 232. 2007; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 634. 2009.
  Malayalam Name(s): Kottathanukku, Kappakadalavanakku, Thala, Vandarali
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Dioecious trees, to 20 m high; bark brown, smooth, peeling off in thick scales; branchlets densely stellate-tomentose. Leaves simple, alternate, estipulate; petiole 8-12 cm long, stout, swollen at base, stellate-tomentose, 2 prominent glands near the tip; lamina 6-18 x 5-20 cm, broadly ovate or orbicular, base cordate, apex acute or shortly acuminate, margin coarsely repand-dentate, glabrous above except nerves and white stellate tomentose beneath; 5-ribbed from base, palmate, which repeatedly dividing dichotomously towards margin; prominent; intercostae scalariform. Flowers unisexual, in axillary or subterminal racemose or cymose panicles; pedicels jointed; bracts linear, conspicuous; tepals 10, in 2 series; outer 5 5 x 3 mm, incurved, subacute, outside, stellate tomentose; inner petalloid 7 x 4 mm, shortly connate at base, obtuse; stamens 8-20, exserted; filaments free, unequal to 6 mm, villous at base; anthers oblong; disc 4, free; ovary superior, globose, stellate tomentose, 2-3-celled, ovules in each cell; styles short, 2-fid, spreading. Fruit a drupe 2.5 cm across, subglobose or ellipsoid, densely stellate tomentose; seeds 3, oblong; testa bony.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: October-February
  District(s): Palakkad, Alappuzha, Idukki
  Habitat: Dry and moist deciduous forests, also in the plains
  Distribution: Peninsular India and Sri Lanka
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): White
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Localities: Alampetty, Brandippara, Keerapady, Pothundy, Marayur, Chitoor-Agali area, Eramallur, Chandiroor
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