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  Ficus benghalensis var. benghalensis
 
  Family: MORACEAE
  Citation:  Ficus benghalensis L., Sp. Pl. 1059. 1753, var. benghalensis; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 499. 1888; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 361(952). 1928; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 277. 1982; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 378. 1984; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 354. 1985; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 431. 1988; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 748. 1990; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 450. 1990; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 352. 1995; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 663. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Chinnar WLS 297. 1999; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 630. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 463. 2005; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 661. 2009. Urostigma bengalense (L.) Gasp., Nov. Gen. Fici 7. 1844.
  Malayalam Name(s): Alamaram, Peraal, Aal, Nyagrodham, Vadavriksham
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Benyan tree
  Description: Spreading trees, to 30 m high; aerial roots numerous from the branches; bark 10-12 mm thick, greyish-white, smooth, exfoliating in irregular flakes; blaze dull red; exudation milky latex; young parts softly pubescent; branchlets light brownish. Leaves simple, alternate, spiral; stipules lateral, 2-2.5 cm long, sheathing, white-puberulous, deciduous, leaving annular scar, glandular at apex below; lamina 10-20 x 5-12.5 cm, ovate, base round or subcordate, apex obtuse, margin entire, coriaceous, glabrescent above, minutely pubescent beneath; 3-7-ribbed from base, lateral nerves 4-6 pairs, pinnate, prominent, intercostae reticulate, prominent. Flowers unisexual; inflorescence a syconia, sessile, in axillary pairs, globose, puberulous without; basal bracts 3, broad, round, glabrous, coriaceous, persistent, orifice plane, closed by 3 bracts in a 3-4 mm wide disc; internal bristles none; flowers of 4 kinds; male flowers dispersed with female, rather numerous near the mouth of the receptacles; pedicel 0.5-2.8 mm long; tepals 2-3, rather broad, shortly connate, brownish, glabrous; stamens 1; filament 0.8-1 mm; anther oblong, parallel, unequal, shortly mucronate, connective brown; female flowers sesile; tepals 3-4, shortly connate, brownish, glabrous, ovary superior, 1.5 x 1 mm, obovoid-globose, dark brown on stylar side; style erect or curved, tapering; gall flowers similar to female but pedicellate. Syconium 1.5-2 cm across, ripening orange to red, achenes 2 x 1.5 mm, globose-ellipsoid, dark brown.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: May-August
  District(s): All Districts
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Dry deciduous forests, also in the plains
  Distribution: Indian subcontinent; widely grown as avenue tree
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s):
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 500-700
  Localities: Karumpara, Ezhimala, Adoor, Kannoth, Nileswar, Baveli, Champakulam, Mampad, Vandalodu, Bonaccord
   
 
   
 
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