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Geology & Soil
  Coscinium fenestratum
  Citation:  Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn.) Colebr., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 13: 65. 1822; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 99. 1872; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 27(19). 1915; A. Pramanik in B. D. Sharma et al., Fl. India 1: 313. 1993; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 36. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 23. 1997; Ravikumar & Ved, Illustr. Field Guide 100 Red Listed Med. Pl. 99. 2000 Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 8. 2002; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 65. 2002; M. Mohanan in P. Daniel, Fl. Kerala 1: 183. 2005; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 104. 2009. Menispermum fenestratum Gaertn., Fruct. 1: 219, t. 45, f.5. 1788.
  Malayalam Name(s): Maramanjal, Marathi, Manjavalli
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Tree turmeric, Flase calumba
  Description: Woody climbers; wood yellow, branchlets hoary pubescent. Leaves simple, alternate, deltoid , 15-18 x 13-15 cm, ovate, apex acuminate, base truncate, margin entire; 5-7 ribbed; petiole 10-12 cm long. Inflorescence supra-axillary or cauliflorous. Female flowers mostly from old wood. Sepals 6, sericeous. Petals 3; ovary densely pilose, staminodes 6. Fruit of 1or 2 drupes, to 2 cm dia, globose, brown villous, endocarp borny, peduncle to 12 cm; seed 1, black, glabrous.
  Habit: Climber
  Flowering & Fruiting: August-October
  District(s): Palakkad, Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Thrissur, Wayanad, Malappuram, Idukki, Kannur, Kozhikkode, Pathanamthitta, Ernakulam
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Semi-evergreen and evergreen forests
  Distribution: Indo-Malesia
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Green
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 350-1200
  Localities: Chimmini, Kallar, Kanthalppara, Attayar
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